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Fintech And Financial Inclusion - Revolutionizing Access To Banking Services

In recent times, technological advancements have sparked a transformative wave in the financial landscape, bringing about a paradigm shift in the way people access banking services. This shift is encapsulated in the powerful combination of FinTech and financial inclusion.

Author:James Pierce
Reviewer:Alberto Thompson
Jan 15, 2024
In recent times, technological advancements have sparked a transformative wave in the financial landscape, bringing about a paradigm shift in the way people access banking services. This shift is encapsulated in the powerful combination of FinTech and financial inclusion. Today, we delve into the impact of this dynamic duo, exploring how it is revolutionizing access to essential banking services for individuals and communities alike.

What Is FinTech?

Fintech, a blend of "finance" and "technology," encompasses a diverse range of innovations aimed at modernizing traditional financial processes. Although commonly associated with cutting-edge concepts like blockchain and algorithmic trading, fintech extends beyond these to include more mundane applications such as everyday banking, insurance, and back-office risk management functions.
Numerous millions of people use seemingly routine services like mobile banking, which falls under the fintech category. It involves leveraging technology to support the delivery of conventional banking services. Additionally, seemingly unrelated applications, such as the Starbucks app, can also be considered forms of financial technology, facilitating payments and proprietary rewards programs through mobile devices.

Understanding FinTech

While many perceive fintech as a recent phenomenon, this view is not entirely accurate. Although its rapid evolution in the past decade can be attributed to technological advancements, the application of technology in the finance sector has been ongoing for several decades.
Financial institutions have long aimed to enhance service delivery and reduce costs through the utilization of technology. The introduction of the first automated teller machine (ATM) in the 1960s is a notable early example. Even credit cards, predating ATMs, represented a groundbreaking technological leap in the payment realm compared to traditional cash and checks.
Fintech business models rely on diverse technologies, including blockchain, artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning, and big data functions like robotic process automation (RPA). While each use case is distinct, the overarching theme is a collective effort to disrupt the historically well-protected financial services sector, which has been subject to rigorous regulation.

How Does FinTech Work?

Financial technology products and services operate on diverse technological foundations. Some of the latest advancements leverage machine learning algorithms, blockchain, and data science for tasks ranging from processing credit risks to managing hedge funds. A specialized branch known as regtech addresses the intricate landscape of compliance and regulatory issues within industries, particularly fintech.
As the fintech sector expands, so does the concern about cybersecurity. The substantial growth of fintech companies and global marketplaces has heightened vulnerabilities in fintech infrastructure, making it a prime target for cybercriminal attacks. Fortunately, ongoing technological advancements aim to not only reduce existing fraud risks but also counter emerging threats in the ever-evolving landscape of cybersecurity.

Evolution Of FinTech

Fintech's roots extend further back than commonly perceived. While the contemporary face of fintech enables activities like paying for coffee through a mobile app, its historical journey can be traced to the late 1950s with the advent of credit cards.
The evolution of financial technology marked significant milestones as it introduced innovations like ATMs, electronic stock exchanges, bank mainframe computers, and online stock exchanges to the mass market. Each technological leap enhanced the everyday financial infrastructure, largely taken for granted.
Before the internet era of the 1990s, traditional financial institutions, particularly banks, flourished with fintech. The number of commercial bank branches surged from approximately 13,500 in 1950 to over 83,000 in 2008, according to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Online fintech entities like PayPal entered the scene in the late 1990s and early 2000s, gaining momentum after the 2008 global financial crisis, when trust in traditional banking waned, and millennials embraced free online financial services.
Presently, fintech solutions are reshaping the conventional financial landscape, with services transitioning towards new technological paradigms. The use of payment apps on mobile wallets, replacing physical credit cards in physical wallets, exemplifies this shift.
Fintech has significantly transformed various markets, particularly banking, trading, insurance, and risk management industries. Emerging technologies such as big data, artificial intelligence, blockchain, and edge computing are harnessed by fintech companies, including startups, technology firms, and established financial institutions, to enhance accessibility and efficiency in financial services.
Two people having a handshake during a meeting
Two people having a handshake during a meeting

Types Of FinTech

Fintech encompasses various categories, with some of the most prevalent areas being:
  • Mobile wallets and payment apps -Widely adopted fintech solutions like PayPal, Venmo, Square, Apple Pay, and Google Pay facilitate peer-to-peer money transfers and allow merchants to receive payments from customers.
  • Crowdfunding platforms -Platforms like Kickstarter and GoFundMe have transformed traditional funding methods, enabling users to invest in businesses, products, and individuals.
  • Cryptocurrency and blockchain technologies -Notably recognized and scrutinized, these fintech innovations include cryptocurrency exchanges like Coinbase and Gemini, providing users with the ability to buy or sell cryptocurrencies. Blockchain technology, with its potential to reduce fraud, extends beyond finance into other industries.
  • Robo-advisors -Using algorithm-based portfolio recommendations and management, robo-advisors like Betterment and Ellevest aim to lower costs and enhance efficiency in investment management.
  • Stock trading apps -Exemplified by platforms like Robinhood and Acorns, these apps have revolutionized stock trading by enabling investors to trade stocks conveniently from their mobile devices, eliminating the need for traditional stockbroker visits.
  • Insurtech companies -Disrupting various insurance sectors such as car and home insurance, companies like Oscar Health and Credit Karma represent insurtech entities that have entered the healthcare and personal finance industry, introducing innovative approaches to insurance services.

What Is Financial Inclusion?

Financial inclusion, also known as inclusive finance, pertains to initiatives aimed at ensuring accessibility and affordability of financial products and services for individuals and businesses, irrespective of their net worth or company size. The goal of financial inclusion is to eliminate barriers that hinder people from participating in the financial sector and utilizing these services to enhance their quality of life.

Understanding Financial Inclusion

Financial inclusion is not solely a concern for individuals in underdeveloped countries. In the United Kingdom, it is estimated that up to one-fourth of the population comprises low-income individuals facing limited access to financial services.
The World Bank emphasizes financial inclusion through initiatives like the Universal Financial Access 2020, aiming to provide at least basic financial access, such as maintaining a bank account, to at least one billion people globally. As of 2020, the World Bank estimates that around 1.7 billion adults, roughly one-third of the world's adult population, are unbanked or underbanked.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) also prioritizes increased financial inclusion as part of its goals, with a specific focus on assisting unbanked or underbanked women.
In addition to global organizations, the private sector actively pursues greater financial inclusion, recognizing its potential to stimulate economic growth in countries. Enhanced financial inclusion not only aligns with social goals but also presents opportunities for increased profits for banks and other financial institutions.

Importance Of Financial Inclusion

The absence of access to fundamental financial services can lead to severe financial hardships for individuals. It hampers their ability to receive payments, forces them to incur higher costs for essential services like electricity, and limits their purchasing options due to a lack of convenient payment methods.
Consider the extensive online nature of modern commerce. Individuals without a bank account or credit card face significant challenges in engaging in online transactions, such as making purchases on platforms like
Access to financial services is crucial for both individuals and businesses. It serves as a means to store money, manage payments and cash flows, accumulate savings, access credit, and make investments.
This access is also pivotal for acquiring assets and establishing financial security. Enhancing financial inclusion for small businesses holds particular significance, as it can contribute to job creation and elevate the overall standard of living within a community.

Barriers To Financial Inclusion

Financial inclusion faces various barriers, with extreme poverty being the foremost challenge. Individuals experiencing severe poverty often have minimal need or capacity for financial services.
Beyond pervasive extreme poverty, additional substantial obstacles hinder the access of poor and low-income individuals to basic financial services. Financial institutions, such as banks and brokerage firms, commonly enforce stringent documentation requirements for activities like opening an account or conducting money transfers. Consequently, those without the necessary documentation find themselves effectively excluded from financial services.
Geographical constraints, including the absence of nearby financial institution offices and high minimum balance or account opening requirements, further impede financial inclusion. Moreover, a significant barrier lies in the lack of financial knowledge among many poor and low-income individuals, preventing them from understanding how to access or use financial services.
A globe hovering above a person's hand
A globe hovering above a person's hand

Financial Inclusion And Technology

Technology plays a pivotal role in advancing financial inclusion, offering numerous innovative solutions to better serve global populations with financial services. Here are some ways modern innovations contribute to this goal:

Mobile Banking

Mobile banking applications provide a spectrum of services, from checking account balances to transferring funds, paying bills, and even applying for loans. These user-friendly apps, accessible 24/7, empower individuals to conduct financial transactions conveniently via their smartphones, eliminating the need for physical visits to bank branches.

Digital Payments

The FDIC reported that, in 2021, 46.4% of all U.S. households were using nonbank online payment services. Online payment systems offer diverse options for cashless transactions.
Mobile wallets enable users to digitally store funds and make payments through their mobile phones. Additionally, contactless payment methods like Near Field Communication (NFC) and QR codes facilitate quick and secure payments in physical retail settings, reducing the risks associated with carrying cash.

Agent Banking

Agent banking models leverage technology by equipping banking agents with mobile devices and specialized software. These agents serve as intermediaries, representing financial institutions in remote areas where establishing physical branches is impractical. They provide essential services like account opening, deposits, withdrawals, and fund transfers, catering to individuals who lack convenient access to traditional banks.

Online Lending Platforms

Fintech lending platforms directly connect borrowers and lenders through online channels. These platforms enable borrowers to apply for loans, while lenders assess creditworthiness through data analytics and alternative credit scoring methods.
This streamlined process enhances credit access for individuals and businesses often underserved by traditional banks or those who would otherwise be excluded from conventional credit options. For instance, LendingClub highlights that over 4.7 million members have utilized their services to achieve financial goals.

Blockchain And Cryptocurrency

Blockchain technology offers a decentralized and immutable ledger, ensuring secure financial transactions. Cryptocurrencies provide individuals without traditional bank accounts the opportunity to participate in the digital economy, offering potential alternatives to conventional banking systems. Implementing these solutions in developing countries can enhance transaction speed, counter weak national currencies, and promote accessibility within the financial system.

Financial Education Apps

Financial education apps and online platforms provide interactive and engaging content to enhance financial literacy. Users can access educational modules, budgeting tools, and investment insights to improve their understanding of financial concepts and make informed decisions. Notably, as of July 2023, Mint by Intuit had been downloaded over 10 million times from the Google Play store.


Crowdfunding, akin to peer-to-peer lending, enables individuals from diverse locations to come together and support a common cause through donations or equity contributions. Platforms for crowdfunding empower individuals, startups, and social impact projects to raise funds from a broad spectrum of investors.
This democratized fundraising approach broadens access to capital for underserved entrepreneurs and impactful initiatives. As of July 2023, GoFundMe has facilitated the raising of over $9 billion.

Fintech And Financial Inclusion - FAQ

Is FinTech A Financial Inclusion?

Through fintech, entrepreneurs aim to enhance cheap, instant, and widely accessible financial services. Entrepreneurs continue to innovate in key areas of financial inclusion, including lowering fees and increasing limits on mobile money transactions.

What Is The Aim Of Financial Inclusion?

Financial inclusion aims to bring in digital financial solutions for the economically underprivileged people of the nation. It also intends to bring in mobile banking or financial services to reach the poorest people living in extremely remote areas of the country.

What Is The Action For Financial Inclusion?

Action for Financial Inclusion (AfFI) has been set up to turn ideas on promoting financial inclusion and resilience into action. It is a Community Interest Company with charitable purposes.

What Are The Aspects Of Financial Inclusion?

Financial inclusion means that individuals and businesses have access to useful and affordable financial products and services that meet their needs - transactions, payments, savings, credit, and insurance - delivered responsibly and sustainably.


The synergy between FinTech and financial inclusion is proving to be a catalyst for positive change, breaking down barriers and ushering in an era where banking services are more accessible than ever. Through innovative technologies and inclusive approaches, this revolution is not just about banking; it's about empowering individuals, fostering economic growth, and ensuring that the benefits of financial services reach even the remotest corners of our communities.
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James Pierce

James Pierce

James Pierce, a Finance and Crypto expert, brings over 15 years of experience to his writing. With a Master's degree in Finance from Harvard University, James's insightful articles and research papers have earned him recognition in the industry. His expertise spans financial markets and digital currencies, making him a trusted source for analysis and commentary. James seamlessly integrates his passion for travel into his work, providing readers with a unique perspective on global finance and the digital economy. Outside of writing, James enjoys photography, hiking, and exploring local cuisines during his travels.
Alberto Thompson

Alberto Thompson

Alberto Thompson is an acclaimed journalist, sports enthusiast, and economics aficionado renowned for his expertise and trustworthiness. Holding a Bachelor's degree in Journalism and Economics from Columbia University, Alberto brings over 15 years of media experience to his work, delivering insights that are both deep and accurate. Outside of his professional pursuits, Alberto enjoys exploring the outdoors, indulging in sports, and immersing himself in literature. His dedication to providing informed perspectives and fostering meaningful discourse underscores his passion for journalism, sports, and economics. Alberto Thompson continues to make a significant impact in these fields, leaving an indelible mark through his commitment and expertise.
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